Diet / Fat reduction

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Ideal to support the diet

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Table of contents

All about diet

Basic Supplements

In order to maintain basic functions, the body must be supplied with a large number of vitamins, minerals, trace elements and other vital substances that the organism cannot produce itself:

Vitamin D: Current scientific findings interpret vitamin D as an important nutrient for maintaining central functions of the human organism. In this context, it should be particularly noted that vitamin D has been shown to contribute to the normal functioning of the immune system. In addition, vitamin D contributes to a normal absorption/utilization of calcium and phosphorus. Dissolved calcium ions in blood and tissue contribute to a functioning signal transmission between nerve cells. In addition, calcium plays a role in the functioning of digestive enzymes and the preservation of teeth and bones.

Omega-3 fatty acids: Omega-3 fatty acids are among the essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the human body itself. The omega-3 fatty acids - α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - belong to the category of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These are important building blocks of cell membranes and are starting materials for tissue hormones. These hormones appear to play a role in the regulation of numerous metabolic processes, for example in cell reproduction and blood coagulation.

Magnesium: Magnesium is mainly found in the bones and skeletal muscles. Since the body cannot produce this vital mineral itself, it is absorbed through food. One task of magnesium is to contribute to the function of a normal energy metabolism. Within the cells, magnesium is involved in the maintenance and permeability of cell walls.

Zinc: Zinc is a trace element that can be supplied to the body through food. Although the body only needs trace elements in very small quantities, they still play a role in maintaining a functioning metabolism. Zinc can contribute to the maintenance of the immune system, and it also helps to maintain skin, bones and hair.

Multivitamin/multimineral tablets: In principle, one should always try to supply the body with micronutrients through a balanced diet. If there is a temporary undersupply of vitamins and minerals, e.g. due to a deficiency caused by illness, the intake of combined preparations can prevent the deficiency symptoms. The symptoms of a vitamin deficiency are manifold and vary in severity from person to person. They range from concentration disorders to fatigue. In rare cases, a softening of the bones can also be the result of a permanent vitamin deficiency.

Diet and fat reduction

Basic advice for diet and fat reduction

During a dietary phase it depends on the type and amount of calories the body is supplied with throughout the day. A reduced intake of dietary fats and carbohydrates can have a positive effect on the reduction of calorie intake. The human body converts carbohydrates into sugar (glucose) and the hormone insulin plays a role in transporting this macronutrient into the cells. If the body absorbs sugars or simple carbohydrates, as contained in various cereal products (pasta, rice, bread, etc.), this leads to an increase in blood sugar levels. The body then releases the hormone insulin to lower the blood sugar level and thus regulate it by storing sugar in the fat cells.

Glucose is stored in the tissues and cells in the form of glycogen to meet the glucose requirements of the muscles, among other things. By stimulating the metabolism, e.g. during intensive sporting activity, the muscle cells consume the sugar to provide energy for exercise. However, if too many sugar components are available without being consumed and converted, the body stores them as fat reserves. Those who want to reduce their body weight should accordingly eat little or no carbohydrates and avoid industrially produced foods containing sugar.

If the body has no access to carbohydrates or sugars, it gets the necessary energy to maintain important functions from proteins and fats. If the carbohydrate content of food is reduced, the body releases only a small amount of insulin and the fat cells can release the stored fat into the bloodstream.

In terms of nutrition, this means that the body is fed food with a lower sugar or starch content. Vegetables in almost all variations are recommended for this form of diet. For example, spinach, peppers, zucchini or asparagus contain only small amounts of carbohydrates. For the main meals it is recommended to eat meat and fish, as these foods contain a lot of protein. For snacks between meals, nuts with unsaturated fatty acids can be eaten without hesitation, as long as the calorie balance is kept in mind. In the short term, a low-carbohydrate diet can help to reduce weight, but in the long term it is recommended above all for type 2 diabetics, as sugary foods are avoided as far as possible.

The yo-yo effect

If the body is supplied with fewer calories than expected in the course of a reduction diet, the organism falls back on its energy reserves. These are initially the quickly available carbohydrate and protein depots. These are stored in the liver and in the muscles. Only when the carbohydrate reserves are empty does the body make use of the fat deposits. At the same time, the breakdown of protein progresses, so that much of the body's protein is lost through a prolonged diet. If the person is not active in sports during this phase, this results in a loss of muscle mass. Due to the loss of this important body substance, the basal metabolic rate, i.e. the amount of energy that the body needs daily to maintain its functions, decreases. For a balanced energy balance, the body in this case basically has to eat less food than before the start of the reduction diet.

After the end of this diet, the body refills the main energy stores - the fat deposits - as quickly as possible. However, the energy requirement remains at a low level until the protein reserves in the muscles are replenished. If the body is fed the same amount of food during this phase as before the diet, the original body weight is not only quickly regained. In many cases, weight is also gained and this is known as the yo-yo effect.

After a diet, in addition to sufficient physical activity, the eating habits must be adapted to the new energy consumption. This adaptation means that the body must continue to be supplied with a smaller amount of food than before the diet, this applies above all to dietary fats. To prevent the yo-yo effect, body weight should be reduced slowly and over a longer period of time. The body receives just enough energy to ensure that only a small amount of the body's own protein is broken down and the basal metabolic rate only drops slightly as a result. In order to reduce muscle breakdown and at the same time increase energy consumption, physical activity in the form of sport and exercise is advisable. In this way, fat breakdown is increased and the increasing loss of body protein is prevented.

Supplements - Their role in weight loss and fat reduction

The body may perceive a diet as a kind of emergency, as the accustomed eating rhythm is interrupted. How strongly the respective diet form, e.g. low-carb, low-fat, anabolic diet, metabolic diet etc., affects the body varies from person to person. This depends on many different factors, such as genes and the respective metabolism.

In order to stabilise the maintenance of physical and mental performance during a diet, the intake of supplements can play a role in this context.
Two supplements are presented below.

Caffeine

Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance, it is an alkaloid. It is a chemically heterogeneous organic compound, which in most cases has an alkaline (basic) or nitrogenous composition. Caffeine is found in leaves, seeds and fruits of more than 60 plant species.

According to scientific studies, there is reason to believe that caffeine can be perceived as a stimulant. Stimulants are said to stimulate heat production and blood pressure and consequently the body's metabolism. Numerous studies also suggest that caffeine stimulates lipolysis. However, these claims are not scientifically proven. Lipolysis occurs in the fatty tissue of the human body. The entire process can be divided into three steps, with one fatty acid being split off at each step. The split fatty acids can be absorbed by the muscles or the liver and processed in the metabolism. In this way, both dietary and body fats can be used by lipolysis to provide energy to the body.

Green Tea Catechins

The tea contains several catechins, especially the epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG for short. It is a secondary plant substance from green tea, which is often taken by athletes during a dietary phase. This happens especially in combination with caffeine. EGCG is commonly understood as an antioxidant.

Furthermore, green tea contains catechins. This is a substance that the body naturally forms itself and which regulates the production and effect of norepinephrine. This neurotransmitter unfolds its effect at so-called adrenoceptors, especially at the α receptors. A receptor is a molecule that sends a certain stimulus to a cell. Noradrenaline contracts blood vessels and dilates coronary arteries. A frequently observed effect is an increase in blood pressure, which among other things can stimulate metabolism.


Applications of dietary supplements

Benefits and use of Carnitine

According to nutritional studies, dietary supplements can serve as a supplement to a healthy and complete diet when losing weight, in addition to the listed indications. The amino acid L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like substance, a so-called vitaminoid. It is formed by the two essential amino acids methionine and lysine. Carnitine in general can be present in two different forms - either in L-form or in D-form. In proteins, amino acids are only found in L-form. L-carnitine is involved in numerous important bodily functions and plays a role in energy production during fat metabolism, among other things.

Benefits and use of stimulants

Stimulants probably stimulate the metabolism, but this has not been scientifically proven. Supplements as stimulants can be supplied to the body in the form of so-called energizers. Caffeine is considered a stimulant and as such is taken worldwide. After intake, caffeine docks with certain molecules (adenosine receptors) on the cells and thereby displaces the body's own messenger substance adenosine, which is said to trigger fatigue.

 

Use and side effects

Basically, an overdose of any kind of supplements can lead to undesirable side effects. In most cases, however, the results of a large number of studies have not been scientifically proven. Possible side effects of an overdose include severe thirst, nausea, vomiting or kidney problems.

Increased caffeine intake is generally not recommended, especially for children, adolescents, pregnant or nursing persons. The intake of larger amounts of caffeine can lead to undesirable side effects. Sleep disturbances, headaches or pain in the digestive tract may occur.